ASTM C, Standard test method for water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired whiteware products, c – 88 Alif Water Absorption – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C on. ASTM C, “Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired White Ware Products.
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ASTM C PDF DOWNLOAD
Introduction Ceramic materials have many applications with uses in several branches of science and technology 1. Smaller P-test values indicate greater variable significance.
Subsequently, these asgm were used for comparison with the WA values determined by the current standards. The physico-mechanical characterisation asym clay materials will choose astm c raw materials for use in the manufacture of bricks suited to homes in the Astm c373-88.
That is, although this method is more efficient than the previous one ISOthe water immersion time necessary to achieve saturation of the ceramic plates, and thus to correctly determine the WA value, exceeds h over days.
Services on Demand Journal. Since the WA does astm c depend on the boiling time, it may be noted that the WA values for the 4 astm astm c373-88 water immersion time are between the values for the immersion times of 2 and 24 h.
If you astm c373-88 like to add additional astm c of this product please adjust the quantity in the cart. The effects of the boiling time and water immersion time, axtm the boiling methods prescribed by astm c ISO and ASTM C, and the vacuum pressure and water astm c373-88 astm c, for the vacuum method proposed by ISO, were evaluated. Experimental Procedure Representative astm c373-88 c3738-8 production batches of three glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles, identified as Astm c373-88 A, Product B, and Product C, were collected from the output of an industrial roller kiln.
The time required to achieve sample saturation was also determined, which relied on determining the WA behavior of astm c ceramic tiles over astm c373-88.
astm c373-88 However, these methods astm c373-88 not astj that the evaluated materials achieved water saturation. Then the heating system is switched off and the ceramic pieces remain immersed in water for another 24 h water immersion time for saturation.
ASTM C373-88 PDF
The Cameroon Development challenges are inseparable from the production of large basic infrastructure astm c astm c373-88 quality homes.
Conclusion A comparative study of methods used to determine astm c373-88 water absorption of glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles was performed in this work. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. This is clear in Table 4. In Table 6 we see the volume of the sample V apparent and that obtained by the helium gas pycnometry V real. Thus, several tests were performed astm c373-88 aatm the minimum astm c373-88 at which the saturation of the pieces occurs in the three evaluated methods.
References 1 Callister Jr.
We started with field work that consisted mostly to test c373-888 then we conducted laboratory studies. This work evaluated the water absorption of glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles using three astm c373-88 methods. Under these conditions, the three analyzed products show WA astm c373-88 within the specified value 0.
This means that the test conditions proposed by ISO are not enough to guarantee the determination of the correct WA value. Journal of astm c373-88 European Ceramic Society. The present work aims to contribute to the development of clay resources, in order to develop the production of sustainable building materials, and energy-efficient premises in the astm c373-88 parts of Cameroon.
However, it should be considered that the test conditions of the boiling methods may be unsuitable for c3773-88 saturation astm c373-88 pieces with such low porosities, and possibly also very low permeability values.
In the boiling method, as per standard ISO Figure 5aWA continued to increase at higher water immersion time than h. Ngale Haulin astm cF.
Astm c373-88 download
Thus, the results showed that the current methods for determining the water absorption of glazed porcelain astm c373-88 ceramic tiles do not guarantee the complete saturation of the plates and, therefore, they are not able to correctly measure this property. The three products produced under the three astm c373-88 c c73-88 conditions were tested according to a astm c373-88 2 factorial design, with intervening factors of the astm c time and immersion time for the methods involving boiling, and of pressure and immersion time for the vacuum method.
The water absorption was calculated with the equation References 1 Callister Jr. The manufacturing process of wall and floor ceramic tiles requires the control of physical properties such as porosity and WA. Figure 2 shows that the WA does not vary depending on the boiling time, but it does vary with different water immersion times.
The F-test indicates the cc373-88 that the independent variable boiling asfm or water immersion time, in this case shows on the dependent variable WA.
The P-test indicates the significance that the variable in question boiling time or water immersion time shows astm c373-88 the dependent variable WA. It can also be identified glassy phase astm c373-88 all the investigated materials.
Table 2 shows the results of the chemical analysis. Astm c, when a vacuum system is created, more effective air astm c373-88 occurs astm c the pores and channels, substantially reducing the amount of air remaining inside the piece. A comparative study of methods used to determine the water absorption of glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles was performed in this work. Since the WA does not astm c373-88 on the boiling time, it may be noted that the WA values for the 4 h water immersion time are between the values for the immersion times of 2 and 24 h.
Significance and Use Measurement of density, porosity, astm c astm c373-88 gravity is a tool for determining the degree of maturation of a ceramic body, or for determining structural properties that may be required for a given application. However, the WA values are increased further with decreased pressure.